Monday 17 June 2024

New Video Posted: The Golgi Apparatus and Protein Processing

In the video - The Golgi Apparatus and Protein Processing - I look at the role of the Golgi in processing proteins.

The Golgi apparatus (possibly my favourite organelle) was discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898 and confirmed in the 1950s.

Structurally, the Golgi resembles a stack of plates, and it has three distinct regions: the cis face (closest to the ER), the medial Golgi, and the trans face (furthest from the ER). The primary function of the Golgi is to process and sort proteins received from the ER, directing them to lysosomes, endosomes, or the plasma membrane.

There are two main theories for how the Golgi operates:

  • Vesicle Transport Model - proteins move to the machinery.
  • Cisternal Maturation Model - machinery moves to the proteins.
Evidence, such as vesicular tubular clusters and vesicles' size constraints, supports the Cisternal Maturation Model. In this model, the Golgi's cisternae mature over time, recycling enzymes via COPI vesicles.

Upon leaving the Golgi, proteins can enter one of two pathways:

  • Constitutive secretory pathway - direct to the cell surface)
  • Regulated secretory pathway - via secretory vesicles and requires a signal for the vesicles to traffic further.

If you would like to say thanks for the video, then please feel free to buy me a coffee at

Blog Bonus: Free information sheet summarising the video and defining the key terms - download.

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